Viura, also known as Macabeo, is a white wine grape variety with a rich history and widespread cultivation. Here’s a comprehensive description covering its origin, history, cultivation regions, characteristics, and the wine it produces:

Origin and History:

1. Origin:

  • Viura/Macabeo is believed to have originated in the Catalonia region of northeastern Spain.

2. Name Origin:

  • The dual name Viura/Macabeo is often used interchangeably, with Viura being the more commonly used term in modern times. The name Macabeo is thought to have originated from a variety of sources, possibly from the biblical name Maccabaeus or the Hebrew word “maqaba,” meaning early.

Cultivation Regions:

1. Primary Region:

  • Viura/Macabeo is predominantly grown in Spain, where it is a key component in many white Rioja wines. It is also cultivated in other Spanish regions like Penedès and Costers del Segre.

2. International Cultivation:

  • While Spain remains the primary producer, Viura/Macabeo is also cultivated in regions outside of Spain, including southern France (where it’s often referred to as Macabeu) and parts of the New World, such as Argentina.

Characteristics of the Variety:

1. Viticulture:

  • Viura/Macabeo vines are known for their adaptability to different climates and soils.
  • The grape variety tends to have large clusters with thick-skinned berries.

2. Ripening:

  • Viura/Macabeo is an early-ripening grape variety, making it well-suited to warm climates.

3. Susceptibility:

  • While it is relatively disease-resistant, it can be susceptible to powdery mildew.

Characteristics of the Wine:

1. Appearance:

  • Viura/Macabeo wines are typically pale yellow or straw-colored.

2. Aromas and Flavors:

  • The wines often exhibit floral and fruity aromas, with notes of green apple, pear, and citrus.
  • Depending on winemaking techniques and aging, Viura/Macabeo wines may display subtle herbal or mineral characteristics.

3. Acidity:

  • Viura/Macabeo wines are known for their refreshing acidity, contributing to their crisp and lively character.

4. Ageability:

  • Some premium Viura/Macabeo wines, especially those used in the production of white Rioja, can age well, gaining complexity and developing richer flavors over time.

5. Wine Styles:

  • Viura/Macabeo is often used as a varietal wine but is also frequently blended with other grape varieties. In Rioja, it is commonly blended with Malvasia and Garnacha Blanca.

6. Vinification:

  • The grape responds well to various winemaking techniques, including stainless steel fermentation for a fresh and fruity profile, as well as oak aging for added complexity and structure.


Viura/Macabeo is a versatile and widely planted white grape variety, contributing to a range of wine styles from light and crisp to more complex and age-worthy. Its historical roots in Spain, particularly in the production of Rioja wines, showcase its significance in the world of winemaking. The grape’s adaptability and ability to express terroir make it a favorite among winemakers in various regions around the globe.

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